ASTM A199 Heat-Exchanger Tube

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ASTM A199 Heat-Exchanger Tubes

ASTM A199 specification covers seamless cold-drawn intermediate alloy steel tubes intended for use in heat-exchanger and condenser systems. These tubes are known for their excellent thermal conductivity, high strength, and corrosion resistance, making them ideal for demanding thermal applications.

Key Features

  • Standard: ASTM A199
  • Grades:
    • Grade T5
    • Grade T22
  • Sizes:
    • Outside Diameter: 1/8” to 5” (3.2 mm to 127 mm)
    • Wall Thickness: 0.015” to 0.500” (0.4 mm to 12.7 mm)
  • Lengths: Up to 24 meters or custom lengths as per requirements

Chemical Composition

The chemical composition varies based on the specific grade. Below are the compositions for Grade T5 and Grade T22:

Grade T5:

Element Percentage (%)
Carbon (C) 0.15 max
Manganese (Mn) 0.30-0.60
Phosphorus (P) 0.025 max
Sulfur (S) 0.025 max
Silicon (Si) 0.50 max
Chromium (Cr) 4.00-6.00
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.45-0.65

Grade T22:

Element Percentage (%)
Carbon (C) 0.05-0.15
Manganese (Mn) 0.30-0.60
Phosphorus (P) 0.025 max
Sulfur (S) 0.025 max
Silicon (Si) 0.50 max
Chromium (Cr) 1.90-2.60
Molybdenum (Mo) 0.87-1.13

Mechanical Properties

Mechanical properties also depend on the specific grade. Below are the properties for Grade T5 and Grade T22:

Grade T5:

Property Value
Tensile Strength (min) 60,000 psi (415 MPa)
Yield Strength (min) 30,000 psi (205 MPa)
Elongation (min) 30%

Grade T22:

Property Value
Tensile Strength (min) 60,000 psi (415 MPa)
Yield Strength (min) 30,000 psi (205 MPa)
Elongation (min) 30%

ASTM A199 Manufacturing Process

  1. Billet Selection: High-quality alloy steel billets are selected according to the required specifications.
  2. Heating: Billets are heated to the required temperature for forging.
  3. Piercing: Heated billets are pierced to form a hollow tube.
  4. Cold Drawing: The hollow tube is cold drawn to achieve precise dimensions and a better surface finish.
  5. Heat Treatment: Tubes undergo heat treatment processes such as annealing or normalizing to achieve the desired mechanical properties.
  6. Inspection: Tubes undergo various non-destructive tests such as ultrasonic testing, eddy current testing, and visual inspection to ensure material integrity and quality.
  7. Hydrostatic Testing: Each tube is subjected to hydrostatic pressure testing to verify its pressure resistance.
  8. Finishing: Final processes include end beveling, coating, and marking as per customer specifications.

Applications

  • Heat Exchangers: Used in heat exchangers for efficient thermal conductivity and heat transfer.
  • Condensers: Suitable for condenser tubes in power plants and industrial applications.
  • Boilers: Employed in boiler tubes where high pressure and temperature resistance are required.
  • Petrochemical Industry: Suitable for high-pressure applications in refineries and petrochemical plants.
  • Power Plants: Used in various heat recovery systems and power generation equipment.

Advantages

  • High Strength: Capable of withstanding high pressure and temperature.
  • Excellent Thermal Conductivity: Provides efficient heat transfer.
  • Corrosion Resistance: Alloy composition offers good resistance to corrosion and oxidation.
  • Seamless Construction: Ensures better pressure handling and reduced risk of leakage.
  • Durability: Excellent resistance to wear and tear, ensuring long service life.
  • Quality Assurance: Rigorous testing ensures compliance with ASTM standards and high-quality output.

ASTM A199/A199M Specification for Seamless Cold-Drawn Intermediate Alloy-Steel Heat-Exchanger and Condenser Tubes

ASTM A199/A199M covers seamless cold-drawn intermediate alloy-steel tubes intended for use in heat-exchanger and condenser systems. These tubes are designed to handle a wide range of temperatures and pressures, making them suitable for various industrial applications, including oil refineries, gas condensers, and petrochemical plants.

Key Specifications

  • Outer Diameter: 3.2 – 76.2 mm
  • Wall Thickness: 1 mm – 150 mm (SCH10 ~ XXS)
  • Length: 5.8 m – 12 m, customizable as per requirements
  • Grades: T4, T5, T9, T11, T21, T22, T91
  • Applicable Temperature: Service temperatures ranging from –100°C to +625°C (-150°F to 1150°F)

Chemical Composition

The chemical composition varies based on the specific grade. Below are the compositions for various grades:

Grade C (%) Mn (%) P (max %) S (max %) Si (%) Cr (%) Mo (%)
T4 0.05-0.15 0.30-0.60 0.025 0.025 0.50-1.00 2.15-2.85 0.44-0.65
T5 0.15 0.30-0.60 0.025 0.025 0.50 4.00-6.00 0.45-0.65
T9 0.15 0.30-0.60 0.025 0.025 0.25-1.00 8.00-10.00 0.90-1.10
T11 0.05-0.15 0.30-0.60 0.025 0.025 0.50-1.00 1.00-1.50 0.44-0.65
T21 0.05-0.15 0.30-0.60 0.025 0.025 0.50 2.65-3.35 0.80-1.06
T22 0.05-0.15 0.30-0.60 0.025 0.025 1.90-2.60 0.87-1.13 0.87-1.13
T91 0.08-0.12 0.30-0.60 0.020 0.010 0.20-0.50 8.00-9.50 0.85-1.05

Physical Properties

The physical properties also depend on the specific grade. Below are the properties for various grades:

Property Value (All grades except T91) Value (T91)
Tensile Strength (min) 60,000 psi (415 MPa) 85,000 psi (585 MPa)
Yield Strength (min) 60,000 psi (415 MPa) 85,000 psi (585 MPa)
Elongation (min) 25% 60%
Hardness (HRB max) 85

Manufacturing Process

    1. Billet Selection: High-quality alloy steel billets are chosen according to the required specifications.
    2. Heating: Billets are heated to the required temperature for forging.
    3. Piercing: Heated billets are pierced to form a hollow tube.
    4. Cold Drawing: The hollow tube is cold drawn to achieve precise dimensions and a better surface finish.
    5. Heat Treatment: Tubes undergo heat treatment processes such as annealing or normalizing to achieve the desired mechanical properties.
    6. Inspection: Tubes undergo various non-destructive tests such as ultrasonic testing, eddy current testing, and visual inspection to ensure material integrity and quality.
    7. Hydrostatic Testing: Each tube is subjected to hydrostatic pressure testing to verify its pressure resistance.
    8. Finishing: Final processes include end beveling, coating, and marking as per customer specifications.

Applications

ASTM A199 tubes are widely used in the construction of heat exchange equipment for various industries, including:

      • Oil Refineries: Used in heat exchangers and condensers for efficient thermal management.
      • Gas Condensers: Essential in gas condensation processes requiring high thermal conductivity.
      • Petrochemical Plants: Suitable for high-pressure applications and corrosive environments.
      • Power Plants: Utilized in boilers and superheaters due to their ability to withstand high temperatures and pressures.
      • General Industrial Use: Employed in various heat recovery systems and other industrial thermal applications.

Conclusion

ASTM A199 seamless cold-drawn intermediate alloy-steel tubes are essential for high-performance heat-exchanger and condenser applications in various industries. They offer a combination of strength, thermal conductivity, and corrosion resistance, making them a reliable choice for demanding thermal management systems.

For any ASTM A199 needs, including specific grades like T4, T5, T9, T11, T21, T22, and T91, contact your trusted suppliers and manufacturers. Ensure you get high-quality tubes that meet the stringent standards and performance requirements of your industrial applications.

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